Together with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the UDHR forms what is called the International Bill of Human Rights.

Even though the UDHR is not a formally binding treaty, it may be the most influential of the three.

The UDHR was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948.

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How this document relates to Internet governance

  • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1).
  • Right to effective remedies for acts violating fundamental rights (article 8).
  • Protection of privacy, honour and reputation (article 12).
  • Freedom of thought, conscience and religion (article 18).
  • Freedom of opinion and freedom of expression, including freedom of communication (article 19).
  • Everyone is entitled to realization of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality (article 22).
  • Right to work with free choice of employment und just and favourable conditions of work (article 23).
  • Right to education (article 26).
  • Right to take part in cultural life, and share in scientific advancement and its benefits (article 27(1)).
  • Right of authors to protection of the moral and material interests resulting from their scientific, literary or artistic productions (article 27(2)).
  • In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society (article 29(2)).



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